(DOCX) Click here for additional data file

(DOCX) Click here for additional data file.(16K, docx) Acknowledgments We would like to express our deep gratitude to the center of neurobiology of Xuzhou Medical University. inverted microscope with a new UIS2 optical system. The duration of recording Menaquinone-7 was from 6th to 48th h. 0s represents the starting point of recording (The actual time is 6th h after the scratching); 12s represents the end point of recording (The actual time is 48th h after the scratching).(TIF) pone.0211501.s002.tif (12M) GUID:?ED067A55-5976-4108-9A5B-47C10DCCF9F7 S1 Video: Video data of cell motility in control and GDNF groups. (ZIP) pone.0211501.s003.zip (53M) GUID:?FD829E15-0381-4E38-AAE4-8E8C0B17AE0D S1 Table: The OD450 data comparison among different groups (meanSD). (DOCX) pone.0211501.s004.docx (16K) GUID:?985EE6E6-87E4-4757-94AA-615AFB3190E5 Data Availability StatementAll relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files. Abstract Gliomas are the most common malignant tumors of the brain and are characteristic of severe migration and invasion. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) promotes glioma development process. However, the regulatory mechanisms of promoting occurrence and development of glioma have not yet been clearly elucidated. In the present study, the mechanism by which GDNF promotes glioma cell migration and invasion through regulating the dispersion and location of the Golgi apparatus (GA) is described. Following GDNF treatment, a change in the volume and position of GA was observed. The stack area of the GA was enlarged and it was more concentrated near the nucleus. Golgin-160 and Golgi microtubule-associated protein 210 (GMAP210) were identified as target molecules regulating GA positioning. In the absence of either golgin-160 or GMAP210 using lentivirus, the migration and invasion of U251 cells were decreased, while it was increased following GDNF. It was also found that the GA was decreased in size and dispersed following golgin-160 or GMAP210 knockdown, as determined by GA green fluorescence assay. Once GDNF was added, the above phenomenon would be twisted, and the concentrated location and volume of the GA was restored. In combination, the Menaquinone-7 present data suggested that the regulation of the position and size of the GA by golgin-160 and GMAP210 play an important role in U251 cell migration and invasion. Introduction Glioma is a heterogeneous, highly complicated central nervous system (CNS) tumor with an uncertain mechanism of initiation and progression[1], which results in an unfavorable outcome. The invasion properties of glioblastoma render a radical surgery necessary and are responsible for its recurrence[2]. In addition, the migration and invasion of glioma cells severely disrupt brain function, due to the disruption of normal astrocytes, which are lifted up from blood vessels by glioma cells[3, 4]. So, it remains a holy grail of the migration of glioma cells. Cell migration is crucial for remodeling and regulating brain function [5], both during the early development phase[6] and adulthood. What is then the difference between a normal and a pathological brain? In normal adult brains, cell migration is limited and appears mainly in the sub ventricular zone and dentate gyrus areas [5]. Stem cells located Mouse monoclonal to SKP2 in these two areas continuously produce progenitors that migrate and differentiate. Cell migration is also a feature of malignant gliomas that use the same tortuous route traveled by stem cells[7]. Many molecules, including glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), are involved in cell migration. GDNF contributes to the maintenance of neuronal migration toward the olfactory bulb [8]. In a previous study, Xiong reported that GDNF could activate the proN-cadherin mediated intracellular signal transduction in glioma cells, which promotes the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and degrades extracellular matrix[9]. It therefore appears that GDNF plays a role in promoting cell migration. Several studies have focused only on the cell migration and Menaquinone-7 the associated signaling molecules activated by GDNF. Rather, little attention has been paid to the dynamic changes in the movement of the cells themselves. Fibroblast polarization is one of the most important phenomena in directional cell migration[10]..